United States District Court, W.D. Wisconsin
OPINION & ORDER
JAMES D. PETERSON District Judge
Plaintiff Sabina Burton is now a tenured associate professor of criminal justice at the University of Wisconsin-Platteville (UWP). Several years ago, Burton advocated for a student who complained of sexual harassment at the hands of another UWP professor. Burton contends that, as a consequence of her advocacy for this student and her subsequent efforts to assert her own rights, she has faced discrimination and retaliation from UWP colleagues and administrators. She brings this suit against defendant Board of Regents of the University of Wisconsin System (the entity responsible for UWP) and three employees of UWP.
Burton’s complaint alleged multiple causes of action under four federal laws: Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964; Title IX of the Education Amendments of 1972; the Equal Pay Act; and the Equal Protection Clause of the Fourteenth Amendment. Defendants have moved for summary judgment on all claims. In response, Burton has conceded that she cannot succeed on many of her claims, leaving two retaliation claims that Burton regards as the heart of this suit. First, Burton contends that she faced retaliation for assisting the student with her sexual harassment complaint, in violation of Title VII and Title IX. Second, Burton contends that, also in violation of Title VII, she faced retaliation for asserting her own rights by filing a charge of discrimination with the Wisconsin Department of Workforce Development-Equal Rights Division (ERD) and by filing this lawsuit.
Title VII and Title XI prohibit retaliating against an individual who asserts her rights in employment and education, respectively. But neither law requires-or, frankly, permits-a federal court to referee every dispute generated by the friction of day-to-day operations in university departments. As this opinion explains, Burton perceived slights and a lack of collegiality, and she felt personal embarrassment at the hands of her colleagues. But those are not materially adverse actions, and they do not amount to actionable retaliation. Burton also received a formal letter of direction, which led to a disciplinary complaint. Although these were adverse actions, Burton has not adduced evidence to show a causal link to her protected activity (i.e., filing a charge of discrimination and bringing this lawsuit).
As a university faculty member, Burton works with a high degree of autonomy. But she is not immune from supervision and discipline. Federal courts are properly reluctant to second-guess the personnel decisions of university administrators, and Burton has given this court no reason to do so here. Defendants are entitled to summary judgment.
Except where noted, the following facts are undisputed.
Burton began working at UWP in 2009, as a tenure-track assistant professor in the criminal justice department, which is part of the College of Liberal Arts and Education.
Burton was a successful faculty member, and in January 2012, she was promoted to associate professor. At the time, defendant Thomas Caywood was chair of the criminal justice department. Defendant Elizabeth Throop became dean of the College in June 2012.
The trouble starts in October 2012. One of Burton’s colleagues in the criminal justice department was lecturing on the subject of “breach experiments, ” which are essentially provocations designed to display social norms by violating them so that they can be studied. The professor demonstrated a breach experiment: in plain view of the class, he handed a female student a note that read “Call me tonight‼” and included his cell phone number. Dkt. 51-1. The student did not recognize the exchange as a demonstration, and she was upset by the note. Later that day, she sought out Burton to talk about the incident. Afterwards, Burton emailed dean Throop, alerting her to the apparent harassment of the student. Throop suggested that the student speak to the dean of students.
The next day, Burton followed up on the student’s complaint and spoke with Caywood. Burton also forwarded to Caywood an email that she had received from the student the night before, with an image of the note. Burton indicated that she would contact student affairs, but she did not tell Caywood that she had already emailed Throop. Caywood spoke with the breach-experimenting professor that day, learned that the note had been part of a demonstration, and advised the professor to send an apology to the entire class, which he did. When Caywood emailed Burton to explain the situation, Burton suggested that department faculty be informed about all such experiments in the future. Caywood responded that this was not necessary and that if students had problems with faculty members, then they needed to come see him to sort out those problems.
Word got around to administrative personnel at UWP, including the chancellor, the provost, and the human resources department. Over the next two days, Throop emailed Caywood to express her serious concerns with the experiment and with Caywood’s response to it. Throop also emailed Burton-who, by this point, had become the student’s informal liaison and advocate-asking her to assure the student that the matter would be taken seriously and resolved as quickly as possible. When Caywood asked to interview the student to find out what happened, the director of human resources told him to drop the issue because her office would handle it. The parties do not explain how UWP eventually resolved the incident, but the resolution of the underlying complaint is not relevant to Burton’s claims in this case.
In the following months, Burton experienced what she perceived to be unwarranted public criticism for the way that she had handled the student’s complaint. For example, about one week after the incident, Caywood prepared a memo outlining the steps that faculty members should take if a student came to them with a problem concerning another faculty member. The memo instructed that students should first contact the faculty member in person to resolve the issue directly, if the problem was along the lines of a low grade or poor attendance. For complaints about what a faculty member said or did, students were to come directly to Caywood. For behavior that could potentially amount to criminal conduct, faculty members were to contact campus police. Caywood circulated this memo to the members of the criminal justice department.
At a department meeting in November 2012, Caywood reiterated his instruction that student issues should be brought to his attention so that harmless matters did not go all the way to the provost. Burton felt that the announcement was a veiled public reprimand from her department chair, and she emailed the director of human resources at UWP to request a meeting. She wrote that Caywood’s comments were in retaliation against her for assisting the student and that she could not accept Caywood’s “ongoing bitterness.” Dkt. 54-14.
About the same time, Burton perceived a sudden loss of support from Caywood and Throop regarding Burton’s efforts to develop a new curriculum in cybersecurity, which Burton, Caywood, and others had been working on since February 2012. The project would involve an extended process. Establishing a new course required approval from the college curriculum committee, and then approval of the university curriculum committee. A new emphasis, program, major, or minor, would ultimately need approval from the Board of Regents. As a preliminary step, Burton and Caywood had worked together on a grant application to the National Science Foundation to secure substantial funding for the cybersecurity curriculum, although the application was unsuccessful.
In the fall of 2012, Burton secured an informal offer from AT&T of a modest amount of private funding for the cybercrime program. In the formal written application to AT&T, Burton wrote that UWP would use the money “[t]o support the development and implementation of a cyber-security curriculum for undergraduate and graduate students.” Dkt. 37-1, at 2. The application also indicated that UWP was “in the process of developing a curriculum for cyber-security, ” and that a milestone of the project would be to develop and implement an undergraduate cyber-security course by February 2013. Id. at 2-3.
Throop and Caywood were concerned with how Burton was portraying the status of UWP’s cybersecurity program. In January 2013 (three months after the student harassment incident), an AT&T representative drafted a press release to announce the company’s donation. The representative sent the release to Burton, who edited the draft and returned it the next morning. Burton attached her edits to an email on which Caywood and Throop were copied. As edited, the release referred to “the development of a new cyber security program, ” and to a “new course . . . expected to be available to undergraduate students beginning spring of 2012.” Dkt. 36-7, at 1. But Burton had not yet formally submitted any proposed cybersecurity courses to the college curriculum committee or to the university curriculum committee.
Throop responded to the draft press release in an email to Burton, Caywood, and AT&T’s representative, writing that: “This press release concerns me deeply. There are a number of highly inaccurate--indeed, misleading--statements regarding the status of cyber-security curricula at the University of Wisconsin-Platteville. I am not confident that the ceremony being planned is wise given this.” Dkt. 53-16, at 1. Caywood also responded to Burton’s email, noting similar concerns and cautioning Burton “on how [she was] presenting [her] ideas and visions in the media.” Dkt. 53-4, at 2. Later that same day, however, Throop emailed Burton and Caywood to explain that she and the AT&T representative had talked over the phone and agreed to additional revisions that would alleviate Throop’s concerns. On January 30, 2013, AT&T presented $7, 000 to Burton in a public ceremony.
Around the same time, Caywood and Throop also identified issues with two websites that Burton had created, both of which discussed a cybersecurity program at UWP. Caywood and Throop felt that these websites inaccurately suggested that UWP had developed or was actively developing a cybercrime program. Throop tried to arrange a meeting with Burton and Caywood to discuss the issues with the websites and the AT&T funding, but Burton refused to meet.
In January 2013, at her earliest eligibility, Burton applied for tenure. She was granted tenure, effective for the 2013-14 academic year. Burton thus enjoyed substantial job security: tenure extends for an unlimited period, and tenured faculty can be dismissed only for just cause and only after due notice and a hearing. See Wis. Admin. Code UWS § 4.01.
In August 2013, Burton filed a discrimination charge with the ERD. The charge alleged that: (1) Caywood had discriminated against her because she was a woman and retaliated against her for reporting the student harassment; (2) Throop and the human resources director had discriminated against her; (3) Throop had defamed her; and (4) the university had been deliberately indifferent to her grievances.
In the summer of 2013, Caywood stepped down, and defendant Michael Dalecki became interim chair of the criminal justice department. But the change of chair did not end Burton’s frustrations. After Burton filed her charge with the ERD, she continued to experience what she perceived to be hostile treatment at the hands of her colleagues and supervisors. For example, Dalecki had several conversations with Burton, during which he encouraged her to drop her ERD charge and lawsuit and expressed disappointment or told Burton to “get over it” each time she refused to do so. Dalecki also told Burton that she could not expect to file a lawsuit without suffering consequences, reminding her to think about how her actions would affect her chances of eventually becoming chair of the criminal justice department. At least one other faculty member also pressured Burton to drop her suit, indicating that Burton would be “dean material, ” but not if she continued to challenge administrators.
Burton continued to disagree with Dalecki and others throughout the 2013-14 academic year and into the summer. The disagreements concerned committee appointments, personnel changes, and departmental management. In addition, Dalecki chastised a graduate student who shared with Burton comments about her that he had overheard a department staff member make at a social event. The graduate student later lost his position because of insufficient funds. Burton contends that all of these actions were in retaliation for her filing a charge with the ERD and a lawsuit in this court.
Burton also had run-ins with Throop. Their conflict came to a head in October 2014, when Throop wrote Burton a letter of direction. The letter identified seven events that Throop described as showing “a consistent pattern of unprofessional and inappropriate behavior.” Dkt. 37-15, at 5. In brief, Throop was concerned that Burton had:
• accused Dalecki of misconduct without a factual basis for doing so, and made these accusations public by emailing the entire department, the provost, and the chancellor;
• written an inflammatory email to the entire department incorrectly accusing a recently resigned colleague of unethical behavior and implying that she would ask the Wisconsin Attorney General to investigate;
• abruptly passed off responsibility for a visit from colleagues in Germany after having organized the visit;
• asked a new assistant professor who had been Burton’s mentee to house-sit for Burton during the summer (which Throop felt was unprofessional, given ...