United States District Court, E.D. Wisconsin
DECISION AND ORDER
HON. RUDOLPH T. RANDA U.S. District Judge
This civil rights lawsuit arises from the death of James Franklin Perry. On September 13, 2010, Perry was arrested by Milwaukee police officers, suffered multiple seizures, and eventually died at the county jail. Perry’s son and the administrator of Perry’s estate sued Milwaukee County, the City of Milwaukee, and various police officers, medical personnel, and other individuals employed by the County and City. Both groups of defendants - the County Defendants and the City Defendants - move for summary judgment, and the County Defendants move for sanctions. These motions are granted.
The City Defendants are police officers Richard Lopez, Frank Salinsky, Stephon Bell, Margarita Diaz-Berg, Alexander C. Ayala, Froilan Santiago, Crystal Jacks, Corey Kroes, Rick Bungert, Luke Lee, Jacob Ivy, and Richard Menzel, Chief of Police Edward Flynn, Deputy Inspector Ramon Galaviz, Captain Victor Beecher, Lieutenant Karl Robbins, Detective Shannon Jones, and the City of Milwaukee.
The County Defendants are registered nurses Cheryl Wenzel, Nicole Virgo, and Tina Watts, Sergeant Fatrena Hale, Correctional Officers Kelly Kieckbusch, Abie Douglas, Anthony Arndt, Sheila Jeff, and Darius Holmes, Inspector Richard R. Schmidt, Sheriff David A. Clarke, Jr., Milwaukee County, and the Wisconsin County Mutual Insurance Corporation, a domestic insurance corporation that issued an insurance policy to Milwaukee County for the time periods at issue.
A. MPD policies and training.
The Milwaukee Police Department training academy staff trains officers using its own Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs) and Code of Conduct, state statutes, and pertinent case law, along with state-board-mandated training guides, which are published by the Wisconsin Department of Justice. Officers are presented with MPD policies regarding many subject matter areas, including the provision of medical assistance to prisoners, and conducting investigations regarding deaths of arrestees which occur while they are in MPD custody.
First responder duties include checking the scene, calling for additional resources, and providing care for life-threatening conditions until more advanced medical caregivers arrive. Officers are trained that some examples of life-threatening conditions or medical emergencies include stroke, seizure, diabetic emergency, poisonings, allergic reaction, and shock. Officers are also trained that they cannot give medication to prisoners. Officers may render first aid or other first-responder-type-assistance if a subject, prisoner and citizen alike, is experiencing a life-threatening condition or medical emergency, but only until medical providers who have a higher level of training arrive on the scene.
MPD policy and procedure requires that once arrested, the arresting officer is responsible for monitoring the arrestee’s physical condition; that throughout the arrest, conveyance, and transport of prisoners, there’s an overriding concern to monitor arrestee health; that any medical emergency should be immediately reported to dispatch and transported to the appropriate medical facility; and that once transferred to another officer for conveyance, the conveying officer is responsible for monitoring the arrestee/prisoner’s physical condition. If an individual in MPD custody is medically cleared, that does not alleviate an officer’s duty to continue to observe and protect the individual’s health, safety, and welfare.
B. September 13, 2010.
On September 13, 2010, at approximately 2:12 a.m., Milwaukee police officers stopped a motor vehicle in which the plaintiff, James Franklin Perry, was a passenger. The vehicle matched the description of a vehicle that was stolen during an armed robbery within the previous few hours. Perry was taken into custody and booked into the MPD Prisoner Processing Section/City Jail at approximately 5:36 a.m.. The booking form indicates that Perry told the booking officer that he suffers from seizures, takes medication two times a day, and had yet to take his nightly dosage.
Perry was placed into the male “bullpen, ” a large cell that holds several male prisoners at the PPS. While in the bullpen, Perry suffered a seizure, fell, and hit his head. MPD personnel contacted the Milwaukee Fire Department to request an ambulance. A first responder noted that “Upon arrival found 41 year old male patient lying supine on floor of holding cell with cushion under his head. Per police, patient had suffered approximately one minute long full body seizure, fell of [sic] bench and hit head on floor.” Lieutenant Robbins, the PPS supervisor, spoke with Perry, who answered his questions and advised him that he suffered from seizures requiring medication twice a day, but had not taken his medication for some time. Perry was conscious, coherent, not resistant or combative and responsive to verbal inquiries. At 3:21 p.m., Perry was transported by ambulance to Aurora Sinai Medical Center for treatment, accompanied by MPD Officers Kroes and Jacks.
At the hospital, Perry was initially alert, responsive, and able to walk on his own. However, Perry suffered at least two additional seizures at the hospital. Perry was medicated with Dilantin, a common anti-seizure drug, and Ativan. Kroes and Jacks perceived that Perry was getting worse, not better. After his second seizure, Perry had a difficult time answering questions, appeared drowsy, and was unable to walk or dress by himself. Hospital personnel told the officers that Perry’s symptoms were the side effects of medication. Perry was discharged into police custody at approximately 6:45 p.m.. Once again, Perry was not resistive or combative at this time. He received a Glasgow score of 15 and was “alert and oriented” upon discharge.
Prior to their departure from the hospital, Jacks called Robbins for instructions on whether they should bring Perry back to PPS or take him directly to the Milwaukee County Criminal Justice Facility (CJF, or the County Jail). Robbins ordered Perry’s return to PPS as certain paperwork had not been completed.
Kroes and Jacks helped Perry put on his clothes and shoes, took him to their squad car in a wheelchair, and assisted him into the squad car. Officers Bungert and Santiago met Kroes and Jacks in the basement parking area at PPS. All four had to carry Perry onto the elevator which brought them up to the jail. The officers then sat Perry on the floor near a bench located in the hallway area outside of the booking room because Perry was unable to control his body or sit on the bench. At that point, one of the four identified officers said to Perry “you’re faking it.”
Perry urinated and defecated on himself. The odor caused Jacks to become ill and vomit. The officers heard Perry grunting, observed that he did not respond to their directions, saw him kicking, felt resistive tension in his arms and legs, and smelled the odor of feces and/or urine. They perceived that Perry was being resistive or combative. When Robbins first came upon Perry in the hallway, he laughed, turned and walked away.
Officer Ayala joined the other four officers in attending to Perry. Ayala took control of Perry’s shoulders to prevent him from getting up. Perry cried out that he couldn’t breathe. Officer Bungert placed a compression hold on Perry and Ayala continued to hold Perry down, pushing forward on Perry’s shoulder and pressing his chest toward his knees. Perry said that Ayala and the other officers were “killing him, ” and he began to grunt and moan.
Perry also began to spit and drool. Due to the potential biohazard, Officer Ivy obtained an expectorant shield/spit mask and assisted officers in placing it over Perry’s head. The shield is made out of lightweight and flexible mesh, and there is a paper-towel-like material that is placed over the mouth area. An expectorant shield does not inhibit hearing or vision. Rather, it is a barrier that prevents the subject from being able to expel bodily fluids from the mouth.
Perry complained that he couldn’t breathe with the spit mask on his face. Officer Kroes responded, “If you’re talking, you’re breathing.” Robbins told Perry that “if he was going to act like an animal, he would be treated like he was in prison …” Robbins, along with the officers assigned to the jail, decided to place Perry in a single cell because they did not want to risk injury to other prisoners. The jailers chose cell A3 because it was a cell that had no bed or bench from which he could fall. Perry was carried into the cell by Officers Kroes, Jacks, Bungert, and Lee. Perry’s handcuffs and leg shackles were removed when he was placed in cell A3.
From the time that Perry re-arrived at PPS until he was placed in cell A3, the above-noted officers did not observe any change in Perry’s condition which suggested to them that he was experiencing a life-threatening condition or medical emergency. Officers Kroes and Jacks attributed Perry’s change in condition to the anti-seizure medication.
Officer Diaz-Berg was the assistant jailer at the PPS. Part of her job was to conduct regular wellness checks of each prisoner kept at the PPS. At some point, Perry had removed the spit mask because Diaz-Berg could see his face. Diaz-Berg heard Perry grunting and saw him rolling around on the cell floor, but did not observe or perceive that Perry was experiencing a life-threatening condition. Perry’s cell was checked seven times.
At 8:08 p.m., Officers Salinsky and Lopez were dispatched to convey Perry to the County Jail. Robbins, Lopez, Salinsky, Lee, Ayala, Diaz-Berg, and Ivey all went to cell A3, where shackles were placed on Perry’s arms and legs and a spit mask was re-applied. Upon entering the cell, Salinsky observed that Perry had defecated on himself. Lopez noticed blood on the discarded spit mask. After his removal, Diaz-Berg and Robbins both noticed blood on the floor. Diaz-Berg summoned custodial worker Andrew Puechner to clean cell A3. Puechner noticed “gobs of spit, blood, and fecal matter.” Perry walked under his own power to the elevator, escorted by an officer on each side. Perry’s condition appeared to have improved when he was being transported to the County Jail.
C. CJF/County Jail.
The pre-booking area at the CJF is where arrestees and prisoners are first brought into the jail before being booked into the facility. It is a rectangular room, approximately 54 feet by 14 feet in size. At one end of the pre-booking room, closest to the door into the pre-booking room from the jail’s sally port, and behind a wall that includes a glass partition, is the pre-booking control tower. The officer assigned to the pre-booking control tower is responsible for monitoring the secure door between the pre-booking room and the sally port. At the same end of the pre-booking room as the pre-booking control tower, and adjacent to the door into the pre-booking room from the sally port, is a desk staffed by an MPD officer. The MPD officer assigned to this desk is responsible for assisting with individuals being booked in the jail from the custody of the MPD. At the opposite end of the pre-booking room is a nurse’s station, which is staffed by one or more nurses employed by the Milwaukee County Sheriff’s Office (MCSO). Nurses assigned to the pre-booking room conduct initial health screenings of arrestees and prisoners brought to the jail to assess whether they are healthy enough to be booked into the jail. No arrestee or prisoner can be booked into the custody of the jail unless he or she is medically cleared through such an initial health screening.
Immediately across from the nurse’s station is a bench along the wall where arrestees and prisoners are seated while they are waiting for an initial health screening by a nurse. The bench is approximately seven feet away from the nurse’s station. There are two video cameras in the pre-booking room, each located at opposite ends of the pre-booking room. The events that occurred while Perry was in the pre-booking room on September 13, 2010 were recorded by these cameras.
Prior to Perry’s arrival at the CJF, an MPD officer called to inform the jail that Perry was a “combative” prisoner. The jail was not informed at that time that Perry had been taken to and released from the hospital while in MPD custody.
Officer Holmes was assigned to the pre-booking control tower at the jail. Holmes was responsible for monitoring the door between the pre-booking room and the sally port. Holmes was not permitted to leave his post in the tower.
At approximately 8:42 p.m. that evening, County Officers Kieckbusch and Arndt helped MPD Officers Salinsky and Lopez bring Perry from an MPD transport vehicle parked in the jail’s sally port into the pre-booking room. Perry arrived in the pre-booking room in leg restraints, his hands cuffed behind his back, and wearing a spit mask, all of which had been applied by MPD officers prior to Perry’s arrival at the jail. Perry was ...