Searching over 5,500,000 cases.


searching
Buy This Entire Record For $7.95

Download the entire decision to receive the complete text, official citation,
docket number, dissents and concurrences, and footnotes for this case.

Learn more about what you receive with purchase of this case.

Jacko v. United States

United States District Court, E.D. Wisconsin

April 26, 2017

CHRISTOPHER R. JACKO, Petitioner,
v.
UNITED STATES OF AMERICA, Respondent. Criminal No. 14-CR-98-2

          ORDER

          J.P. Stadtmueller U.S. District Judge

         On May 31, 2016, Christopher R. Jacko (“Jacko”) filed a motion pursuant to 28 U.S.C. § 2255, asserting that his conviction and sentence were imposed in violation of the Constitution. (Docket #1). Prior to its reassignment to this branch of the Court, the case was stayed pending resolution of several relevant appeals in the Seventh Circuit. (Docket #2). Those appeals have been resolved, and the Court will grant Jacko's request to lift the stay in this case. (Docket #7). The Court now turns to screening Jacko's motion under Rule 4 of the Rules Governing Section 2255 Proceedings, which requires the Court to promptly examine Jacko's motion and dismiss it “[i]f it plainly appears from the motion, any attached exhibits, and the record of prior proceedings that [Jacko] is not entitled to relief.”

         On October 8, 2014, Jacko was convicted of one count of armed bank robbery, in violation of 18 U.S.C. §§ 2113(a) and (d) and 2, and one count of brandishing a firearm during a crime of violence, in violation of 18 U.S.C. §§ 924(c)(1)(A)(ii) and 2. He was sentenced to 12 months as to the first count, followed by a mandatory consecutive sentence of 84 months as to the second count.

         In his petition, Jacko challenges his conviction under Section 924(c). (Docket #1). That provision imposes additional penalties on individuals who carry or use firearms in connection with certain crimes. 18 U.S.C. § 924(c). In Jacko's case, he was convicted of brandishing a firearm during a “crime of violence, ” which the statute defines as an offense that is a felony and-

(A) has as an element the use, attempted use, or threatened use of physical force against the person or property of another, or
(B) that by its nature, involves a substantial risk that physical force against the person or property of another may be used in the course of committing the offense.

Id. § 924(c)(3). The first clause is referred to as the “elements” clause, while the second is known as the “residual” clause.

         The Supreme Court in Johnson v. United States, 135 S.Ct. 2551, 2560 (2015), found that an identical residual clause in the Armed Career Criminals Act was unconstitutionally vague. The Court later determined that the rule announced in Johnson was substantive and should therefore be retroactively applicable to collateral attacks like Jacko's. Welch v. United States, 136 S.Ct. 1257, 1265 (2016). Jacko contends that his armed bank robbery offense under Section 2113(a) and (d) only qualifies as a crime of violence which forms a predicate for his Section 924(c) offense under the residual clause of Section 924(c)(3). (Docket #1 at 1). Because the Supreme Court declared an identical residual clause unconstitutionally vague, he says, the same reasoning should invalidate Section 924(c)(3)(B). Id. That, in turn, requires that his conviction as to Count Two of the Indictment to be vacated. Id. at 2.

         The problem with Jacko's petition is not his legal reasoning; that much is sound, since the Seventh Circuit has held that the residual clause of Section 924(c)(3) is indeed unconstitutionally vague. United States v. Cardena, 842 F.3d 959, 995-96 (7th Cir. 2016). But that holding does not help Jacko here, because the Seventh Circuit has also held that armed bank robbery under Section 2113(a) and (d) constitutes a crime of violence under the elements clause of Section 924(c)(3), since it “[has] as an element the use, attempted use, or threatened use of physical force against the person or property of another.” United States v. Armour, 840 F.3d 904, 908-09 (7th Cir. 2016); Clark v. United States, No. 16-2296, 2017 WL 690754, at *2 (7th Cir. Feb. 21, 2017). Thus, here Jacko's Section 2113(a) and (d) conviction serves as a valid predicate for his Section 924(c) conviction by way of the elements clause of Section 924(c)(3), not the residual clause. This was the only argument stated in his motion, see (Docket #1 at 1-2), and because it is without merit, the Court must deny the motion.[1]

         Finally, under Rule 11(a) of the Rules Governing Section 2255 Cases, “the district court must issue or deny a certificate of appealability when it enters a final order adverse to the applicant.” To obtain a certificate of appealability under 28 U.S.C. § 2253(c)(2), Jacko must make a “substantial showing of the denial of a constitutional right” by establishing that “reasonable jurists could debate whether (or, for that matter, agree that) the petition should have been resolved in a different manner or that the issues presented were adequate to deserve encouragement to proceed further.” Miller-El v. Cockrell, 537 U.S. 322, 336 (2003) (internal citations omitted). Further, when the Court has denied relief on procedural grounds, the petitioner must show that jurists of reason would find it debatable both that the “petition states a valid claim of the denial of a constitutional right” and that “the district court was correct in its procedural ruling.” Slack v. McDaniel, 529 U.S. 473, 484 (2000). In light of the binding Seventh Circuit precedent on the issue raised in Jacko's petition, as outlined above, the Court cannot fairly conclude that reasonable jurists would debate whether his motion should be decided differently; as a consequence, the Court must deny a certificate of appealability to him.

         Finally, the Court closes with some information about the actions that Jacko may take if he wishes to challenge the Court's resolution of this case. This order and the judgment to follow are final. A dissatisfied party may appeal this Court's decision to the Court of Appeals for the Seventh Circuit by filing in this Court a notice of appeal within thirty days of the entry of judgment. See Fed. R. App. P. 3, 4. This Court may extend this deadline if a party timely requests an extension and shows good cause or excusable neglect for not being able to meet the 30-day deadline. See Id. 4(a)(5)(A). Moreover, under certain circumstances, a party may ask this Court to alter or amend its judgment under Federal Rule of Civil Procedure 59(e) or ask for relief from judgment under Federal Rule of Civil Procedure 60(b). Any motion under Federal Rule of Civil Procedure 59(e) must be filed within 28 days of the entry of judgment. The Court cannot extend this deadline. See Fed. R. Civ. P. 6(b)(2). Any motion under Federal Rule of Civil Procedure 60(b) must be filed within a reasonable time, generally no more than one year after the entry of the judgment. The Court cannot extend this deadline. Id. A party is expected to closely review all applicable rules and determine what, if any, further action is appropriate in a case.

         Accordingly, IT IS ORDERED that Petitioner's motion to lift the stay in this case (Docket #7) be and the same is hereby GRANTED;

         IT IS FURTHER ORDERED that Petitioner's motion to amend his motion to vacate (Docket #6) be and the same is hereby GRANTED;

         IT IS FURTHER ORDERED that Petitioner's motion to vacate, set aside, or correct his sentence pursuant to Section 2255 ...


Buy This Entire Record For $7.95

Download the entire decision to receive the complete text, official citation,
docket number, dissents and concurrences, and footnotes for this case.

Learn more about what you receive with purchase of this case.